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The Pacific Abundance Center on Los Angeles’ Wilshire Boulevard is the abode breadth the bodies who accept it all accomplish their babies. With its bright chandeliers and costly clover and covering upholstery in shades of chrism and mink, you’d be forgiven for cerebration the cat-and-mouse allowance was the alteration allowance of a high-end conjugal shop. But the pictures on the flatscreen on the bank accord it away: agenda photos of newborns in blemish mittens, acknowledge you notes, ancestors Christmas cards, tiny active cradled in beholden hands. The images float upwards and abandon like bubbles in champagne.

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In the 25 years Dr Vicken Sahakian has been practising, he has fabricated families for bags of the best advantaged bodies in the world. He has formed with Hollywood stars, although he says he is too alert to acquaint me names. (“You won’t apprehend it from me, but of advance you would accept heard of them.”) His audience are straight, gay, adolescent and old, and they appear to him from beyond the globe, decidedly from China, or genitalia of Europe breadth surrogacy is either actionable or actual deeply regulated. In the UK, surrogacy is legal, but surrogates can affirmation alone costs for accustomed a adolescent for addition person. California law allows surrogates to acquire a profit, and upholds the rights of advised parents over anyone abroad who is complex in the conception of their babies. It’s accustomed the accompaniment a acceptability as the best surrogacy-friendly abode in the world.

As assorted as they are, Sahakian’s audience accept one affair in common: their adeptness to acquiesce his services. If you are accessible to application added people’s eggs, agent or uteruses and are able to pay, annihilation is possible. “Money talks. If you accept money, you’re activity to accept a baby. It’s sad, but it is the case,” Sahakian tells me beneath than bristles account afterwards I sit bottomward in his connected office. He wears blah surgical scrubs abstract with his name, his beard slicked aback and greying at the temples. On his huge, atramentous board sits a bottle paperweight absolute a laser-engraved baby, abutting to a bogus uterus and fallopian tubes. But anon afterwards adage this, he checks himself. “It isn’t sad, absolutely – it’s ambrosial happy. I accept in this blazon of science. I accept in ancestors balancing, gender selection, selecting out aberrant embryos, application egg donors, agent donors, this is what I do. I adulation what I do. The ultimate ambition actuality is bringing beatitude for someone.”

And as the ambit of abundance options accessible to audience has diversified, so accept their requests. Now, a growing cardinal of women are advancing to Sahakian for “social” surrogacy: they appetite to accept babies that are biologically their own, but don’t appetite to backpack them. There is no medical acumen for them to use a surrogate; they aloof accept not to be pregnant, so they accept babies through IVF and again appoint addition woman to gestate and accord bearing to their baby. It is the ultimate in outsourced labour.

Does he accept any ethical apropos about amusing surrogacy? “I don’t accept issues with it,” Sahakian says, smiling. “If you’re a 28-year-old archetypal or an amateur and you get pregnant, you’re activity to lose your job – you will. If you appetite to use a surrogate, I’ll advice you.”

Five years ago, Sahakian says he would administer over a scattering of amusing surrogacy cases a year; now he sees at atomic 20. “More and added every year. And if I’m seeing that, there are so abounding changeable endocrinologists in the breadth who are actual competent abundance specialists – I’m abiding they are seeing the same.” It costs $150,000 to accept a babyish this way. “If amusing surrogacy was added affordable, added women would be accomplishing it, absolutely. There’s an advantage to actuality pregnant, the bonding, I accept that, and from acquaintance I can say that best women adulation to be pregnant. But a lot of women don’t appetite to be abundant and lose a year of their careers.”

The women attractive for amusing surrogacy tend not to be the bigger celebrities, he says. Hollywood stars accept the advantage to alarm the shots aback it comes to schedules, and can accept added aplomb that their careers will be cat-and-mouse for them afterwards they accept a baby. The archetypal candidates are models and actors who are accomplishing able-bodied but haven’t yet fabricated their name. “They acquaint me point blank, ‘If I get pregnant, I will lose my part. I work, I don’t accept time because of work. I model, I act, I attending adequate like this and I don’t appetite to blemish my body.’”

I wince. Do you blemish your anatomy aback you get pregnant?

“You are absolutely disfiguring your body, for that duration, and again if you don’t do the all-important contest it’s activity to booty you a while to get aback to normal. There’s absolutely some accuracy about abundance alteration your body. Your pelvic cartilage opens up, you accrue fat, you accrue birthmark that doesn’t go away. I’m not adage that’s a acumen to use a surrogate, but it is for some people.”

And what about the ally of the women who are accepting added women to backpack their babies, so their own bodies don’t get disfigured? He consistently meets them, but he has never advised what they anticipate about the process. “You know, I never ask that question. I never accompany that up.”

Sahakian describes himself as a feminist. “I am actual proactive aback it comes to women and I accept there is a bifold standard,” he tells me. “Every day I see how biased this association is, how macho antipathetic it is, how women are judged.” This is added than the bent of men actuality able to accept careers and babies at the aforementioned time, aback it is so abundant added difficult for women. “If you are a 62-year-old man and you appear actuality with a 38-year‑old woman, no one asks why you’re accepting a kid at 62. If you appear actuality as a 55-year-old woman aggravating to accept a kid, they acquaint you you’re old, you’re a grandma, you’re crazy. Larry King was, what, 75 aback he had kids?” King was absolutely 65, but Sahakian has a point. He himself is 56, with a wife who is 20 years younger, and two accouchement beneath six.

The official guidelines set out by the American Association for Changeable Medicine (ASRM) say that gestational carriers – surrogates who backpack babies conceived through IVF, with eggs from addition woman – should be acclimated alone aback there is a medical need. But Sahakian has no advisedly about “defining medical affidavit broadly”, as he puts it. “What’s the end aftereffect here? Somebody wants to be a parent. I’m facilitating that. I accept that it’s controversial, it’s ambiguous bent for some people, but put yourself in the shoes of a 26-year-old archetypal who is authoritative her active by modelling swimsuits. Acquaint me commodity – is it that unethical, to say let’s not abort this woman’s career?”

The bulletin was, this guy can get a 62-year‑old woman pregnant. So I had everybody over 50 calling me

Couldn’t she adjournment until she’s beforehand to accept a baby?

“Yes. But what if you appetite to accept a adolescent now, and you don’t appetite to be maybe 40 aback you accept a kid? I don’t anticipate I’m accomplishing annihilation bent by allowance those couples. In this field, in Los Angeles, you can’t adjudicator clients. This is the agrarian west. Twenty years ago allowance a gay brace was anathema – it still is in Arkansas. We are so in the adolescence of all of this.”

Sahakian has a acceptability for blame boundaries, and he relishes it: it’s accustomed him a ballyhoo that drives his business. In 2001, he helped the oldest woman on almanac in France, Jeanine Salomone, accept application donor eggs and accord bearing at 62. A aspersion erupted in France – breadth both surrogacy and bogus formation of post-menopausal women are actionable – aback it emerged that Jeanine’s brother, Robert, was the biological ancestor of the son she gave bearing to. Robert was acutely agee afterwards a suicide attack years earlier, and French journalists appropriate the adolescent may accept been conceived to defended an bequest from Robert and Jeanine’s affluent mother. The columnist descended on Sahakian, who said the ancestors had presented themselves in his consulting allowance as a affiliated couple, and that Jeanine had aria about her age. “I was put on the map,” he tells me, simply. “The bulletin from that was, this guy can get a 62-year‑old woman pregnant. So I had everybody over 50 calling me in the 2000s.”

Then, in 2006, Sahakian became acquiescent for the oldest woman in the apple on almanac to accord birth. Maria del Carmen Bousada, a retired sales abettor from Cadiz in Spain, had her accompanying boys the anniversary afore her 67th birthday. Bousada was diagnosed with blight beneath than a year later, and died in 2009, abrogation her toddler sons orphaned.

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Barbie Party Thank You Cards template

“That woman from Barcelona is in the Guinness Book of Annal as the oldest woman to accord birth, actually,” he says with a pride that feels grotesque. But aback I ask him if he’s blessed with his reputation, he is defensive. “I didn’t advance the boundaries with the Spanish woman: she aria about her age, she said she was 57. She bogus documents, she bogus her medical records. With the French people, they had the aforementioned aftermost name, we had their passports. We don’t ask for alliance certificates, we don’t ask for bearing certificates. Which doctor asks for a bearing certificate?”

He feels no albatross for her twins in Italy. “That’s why I wouldn’t amusement a 67-year-old woman. She was a altogether advantageous 57-year‑old. She died from cancer, so she didn’t accept a above-mentioned condition. You can get blight at 28.” He has aback cut his high age absolute to 55, but still doesn’t ask his audience for absolute affidavit of age.

Sahakian says none of his amusing surrogacy patients will allocution to me, alike anonymously. “They accept annihilation to gain.” This isn’t about vanity, he stresses, it’s about the accountability women are beneath to advance their careers at the aforementioned time as accepting children, and the women he sees accept no absorption in actuality spokespeople for this new way of accepting it all.

Surrogacy isn’t anathema any more. In the UK, you are so far behind. Acknowledge God – it’s adequate for business

The anathema absorbed to absent to accept addition woman backpack your babyish afterwards any medical absolution is so abundant that he says a brace of his audience absolutely affected to be pregnant, animate that their pre-baby bodies would be there for them as anon as the babyish arrived. “You can buy artificial, prosthetic bellies, you know. You can buy them in altered sizes. There’s a acumen why.”

He is right. The accepted all-around baton in affected abundant bellies is a family-run English business alleged Moonbump. It produces appreciably astute tummies in silicone and foam, in a ambit of bristles altered bark tones and four altered evolution sizes, with prices starting at £245 for a silicone model. Moonbump’s articles are acclimated in dramas from EastEnders to Game Of Thrones to Bridget Jones’s Baby, but it additionally caters to auto bodies and men with fetishes, and, as its website says, they are acclimated “in abounding cases, for deepening affecting bonds as you move advanced with a planned surrogacy”. There are several testimonials on its armpit from bodies application surrogates. Moonbump beneath to be interviewed for this article, emailing to say: “We accommodate a alert account for our barter and adopt not to acknowledgment any questions apropos to the business.”


Look carefully at the diction on any cardinal of California-based abundance clinics’ websites and you will see amusing surrogacy is on the cards. “Couples and individuals who are clumsy to accept a babyish on their own, either biologically or through intention, can still body and abound a ancestors acknowledgment to surrogacy,” says the website of Growing Ancestors (my italics). “From medical to affecting to logistical and more, the break for gestational surrogacy can alter significantly,” says the Los Angeles Changeable Center’s surrogacy page. Neither dispensary agreed to be interviewed for this piece. I contacted 10 abstracted California abundance clinics, and about all readily accepted to accustomed out amusing surrogacy, but none could accommodate above or accepted audience who were able to allotment their acceptance with me.

Women apperceive it’s not socially adequate to accept you appetite to be a mother, but would rather addition woman agitated and gave bearing to your child; but that doesn’t stop some from cerebration it, and alike cogent it, beneath the blind of anonymity. Aftermost year, an “Am I Actuality Unreasonable” cilia on Mumsnet titled, “If you had money to burn, would you use a surrogate?” asked users if they would “pay for an American agent if you artlessly didn’t appetite to wait/go through the pregnancy?” The responses were mainly abrogating and outraged, but there were a arresting cardinal of women – at atomic seven – who said they would. “Oh God yes. I had abhorrent HG [hyperemesis] with both my pregnancies but alike putting that abreast it’s not an acquaintance I savoured,” said one. “Yes I would. Abundance is horrible!” said another. “In a heartbeat,” said a third.

Social surrogacy is not aloof for Hollywood models and actors, Saira Jhutty a abundance psychologist, tells me. She works with women who are about to become agent mothers to analysis that they accommodated the ASRM guidelines: that they accept already accustomed bearing previously, accept the action and aren’t activity to accept adapter issues. Jhutty is based in San Diego, a axis for surrogacy with added than 20 abundance clinics and 16 agencies. She acclimated to run her own agency, breadth she formed with several advised parents who were attractive for surrogates for amusing affidavit – and there may accept been abounding added who bearded their reasons. “It’s still anathema to say, ‘I appetite to be a mother but I don’t appetite to carry.’ They could accept been cogent us it was for medical affidavit and we wouldn’t know.”

One accurate applicant stands out in Jhutty’s memory: a woman who was advancement for political office. “It was acclamation year and she knew she was activity to accept to be on the political trail. If she wasn’t out there accomplishing what she bare to do, her acclamation run could be in jeopardy, but she capital to accept a family,” she tells me over the phone. “She knew the abeyant side-effects, and how they could appulse her career, and she aloof felt, hey, I accept this added option, I can still be a mom and not jeopardise aggregate that I’ve been animate for over the aftermost how abounding years.”

San Diego-based abundance specialist Dr Lori Arnold estimates that up to 20% of the 100-200 audience she sees in her convenance anniversary year are there for amusing surrogacy. “Mainly it’s women with careers that don’t acquiesce them the time, or the abeyant blow of actuality on bed rest,” she tells me. “These are career women breadth it aloof doesn’t fit into their agenda but they appetite to accept a child. It’s acceptable added of an option, and if it wasn’t so expensive, I anticipate added women would do it.” Abounding of her audience are affluent Chinese women. “With patients that appear from China, it’s usually about 80% that are social. They feel that afterwards one abundance or two the uterus is old, and that the success amount for an egg will be bigger with a adolescent uterus. It’s a cultural thing.”

Most of Arnold’s surrogacy audience are women who are clumsy to backpack babies themselves for medical reasons: they ability accept been built-in afterwards a uterus, or had a hysterectomy, or accept a above-mentioned action that would accomplish abundance alarming for them. “Most women appetite to acquaintance abundance and commitment and breastfeeding. Best women absolutely accept that desire. But some don’t and we accept to account that. I don’t anticipate it’s annihilation bad: they do appetite to accept a adolescent and a family, but they don’t appetite to become abundant and go through delivery. In my 25 years of acquaintance I haven’t met anyone who absolutely doesn’t appetite to be abundant – it’s mainly a best that their career has accustomed to them.”

As able-bodied as active her own abundance clinic, Arnold has her own surrogacy bureau to accommodate carriers for her patients. Accustomed how awash the acreage is in San Diego, she says award surrogates can be difficult. “It’s a actual aggressive market,” she laments. Aback I ask her how the surrogates feel about demography on the abundance of a woman who has no medical acumen not to backpack the babyish herself, I am abashed by her reply. “The surrogates absolutely don’t apperceive the medical point of why the advised parents are gluttonous surrogacy,” she tells me. “If they asked, if we had permission from the advised parent, we would acquaint them. But it’s a claimed medical accommodation that I do accumulate clandestine and confidential.”

There is no archetypal American surrogate. They alter broadly in agreement of their day job and akin of education, but abounding accept academy degrees and assignment full-time. A cogent admeasurement are aggressive wives: surrogacy agencies accept been accepted to actively access them; the affiance of a advantageous job that allows them to break at home with their own accouchement can be ambrosial for women who are abandoned parents while their husbands are abroad on deployment.

A agent at one dispensary said, ‘So I charge blow my activity to save addition from accepting stretchmarks?’

To authorize as a candidate, a woman charge accept already accustomed bearing to their own biological children, and ASRM guidelines absolute the cardinal of times a agent can backpack to bristles pregnancies; but they aren’t consistently enforced. Their boilerplate age is about 28. The broadly captivated acceptance that American surrogates are aloof accomplishing it for the money is acceptable be a misconception: this is not accessible money, and best say they are motivated by the admiration to accompany joy to bodies who would contrarily accept no way of accepting their own family.

“One agent fabricated an absurd animadversion to me,” says Diane Batzofin, abettor to San Diego-based Dr David Smotrich at La Jolla IVF, breadth she estimates 5% of audience appear for amusing surrogacy. “She said, ‘So I charge blow my activity to save addition from accepting some stretchmarks?’ and I said, ‘No, it’s not absolutely like that, and she said, ‘That’s absolutely how it feels to me.’”

Batzofin wants to accomplish bright that the accommodation to use a amusing agent is not taken lightly. “There are women who accept this affair about the affliction of childbirth,” she says. “Then there are women who are on their own and abutment themselves. What would appear if a woman like that concluded up on bed rest? She’s anxious about how she’d survive not alike the abundance and bringing the adolescent into the world, but how she would survive financially [if complications meant she absent her job].”

The audience she describes tend to be beforehand than Sahakian’s swimsuit models: they are in their backward 30s, and generally single. “What we see a lot now is that women who are not affiliated or attached, who are in their aboriginal 30s, will save their eggs. It’s a abundant beyond market.” If these women abide distinct and feel their jobs are beneath pressure, they ability be tempted to use the eggs they accept arctic with donor agent and a agent for amusing reasons. “Companies like Apple and Google are abundant added acquiescent to allowance women, advantageous for them to benumb their eggs. They are abundant added progressive, in that sense,” she tells me. That is one way of attractive at it. It would be added accelerating if these companies fabricated it easier for women to booty break from their careers to accept babies beforehand in life. Is there a approaching breadth companies will abutment mothers attractive for addition abroad to backpack their baby, so that abundance doesn’t arrest their work? It’s a appalling thought.

Batzofin is in her 60s; she has spent her absolute animate activity in the abundance field, and several ancestors of babies accept been conceived beneath her watch. “The acreage has afflicted dramatically, but the one affair that has not afflicted is the admiration to procreate, in one way or another, the admiration to accept some allotment of yourself, in whatever way it is,” she says. Sometimes that admiration to accept some allotment of yourself can amplitude ethical banned in extraordinary ways. Aftermost year, it emerged that her bang-up had helped a affluent British brace actualize a grandchild application agent extracted from their 26-year-old son three canicule afterwards he was dead in a motorcycle accident. The man had been distinct at the time; he never gave accord for the action aback he was alive, authoritative it actionable beneath English law. Smotrich acclimated a donor and a surrogate, and gender alternative to ensure the babyish built-in was a boy. “The English brace absent their son beneath the best adverse of circumstances. They badly capital an beneficiary and a grandchild. It was a advantage to be able to advice them,” he told the Mail On Sunday.

There is no agnosticism that the doctors who action amusing surrogacy are at the best acute end of abundance treatment. But these aforementioned doctors accept led the way aback it comes to creating families for aforementioned sex couples, and distinct men and women; Smotrich was one of the aboriginal doctors in the US to advice a gay brace become parents, and was abaft the action that accustomed the aboriginal distinct man in the UK to accept his own accouchement afterwards a changeable partner. Could this be addition abuttals American abundance doctors are blame through, which the blow of the apple will one day follow?


Back at the Pacific Abundance Center, beneath Sahakian’s affected medical certificates, I put this to him: that in 20 years bodies will anticipate of amusing surrogacy as no added aberrant than surrogacy for gay couples.

“Twenty? No, a brace of years from now. We’re already about there. Surrogacy isn’t anathema any more. In the UK, you are so far abaft us. Acknowledge God – so abounding of my audience appear from the UK, it’s adequate for business! But that’s activity to change.”

The acceleration of amusing surrogacy is one of abounding accessible futures, so continued as we alive in a apple breadth it can be difficult for some women to be pregnant. These women are acceptance the accountability of a association where, in some awful arresting or ambitious jobs, you can’t become a mother afterwards risking your livelihood. Instead of authoritative their animate lives easier, we are creating an industry breadth they can appoint added women to backpack babies for them.

But the actuality of amusing surrogacy, and the clandestineness that currently surrounds it, perpetuates the abstraction that it is accessible for those women to accept it all, to accept coveted jobs in business, politics, acting and modelling, and to accept accouchement and absolute bodies at the aforementioned time – and be absolutely banausic by the action of accepting babies.

I ask Sahakian if he isn’t creating an absurd illusion? But he shrugs it off. “These aren’t big numbers in the arrangement of things. I don’t anticipate it’s a amusing problem. I can see both sides, but I’m not activity to judge.” He sits aback in his chair, and smiles. “I am adequate with what I do. I like what I do. My ambition is to accomplish my patients happy.”

• Jenny Kleeman is autograph a book about the approaching of birth, food, sex and death, to be appear by Picador in 2020.

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